Egg-Shape Evolution Theory Cracks Under Pressure

first_imgTouted as an evolutionary explanation for bird egg shapes, a new hypothesis celebrating natural selection falls like Humpty Dumpty under a gentle breeze of questioning.I think that, if required on pain of death to name instantly the most perfect thing in the universe, I should risk my fate on a bird’s egg. —Thomas Wentworth Higginson, 1862Natural selection is the hero of a paper in Science Magazine about bird eggs, and Phys.org was sure to make that clear in its write-up. “How eggs got their shapes: Adaptations for flight may have driven egg-shape variety in birds,” the bold headline announces. Read further in this article classified under evolution, and you see that a Professor of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology from Harvard used an evolutionary framework to determine the “implications of egg shape in an evolutionary and ecological setting.” This egg story is drenched in evolutionary seasoning, to make sure the reader won’t miss the taste.And if that isn’t enough evolutionary flavor, Claire N. Spottiswoode in Science Magazine marinates the egg story in Darwin’s special brand Natural Selection Sauce. She says,The selection pressure that best explains its evolution comes from the characteristic we most associate with birds: flight.This hypothesis predicts that species under strong selection for flight-related adaptations—such as migrants and aerial insectivores—should have elliptical or asymmetric rather than spherical eggs.The authors use an index of aerodynamic wing shape as a proxy for such selection, and find that this is by far the best predictor of egg shape.Why, then, are there no hot-air balloon–shaped eggs? Not only do they appear developmentally hard to produce, but perhaps they offer no obvious selective advantage over a spherical egg: They are still inconveniently wide, with little increase in volume.Egg collecting is now deeply unfashionable and rightly illegal. But from its heyday in the late 19th to the mid-20th century, it has bequeathed to us data that can yield wonderful evolutionary insights, as Stoddard et al.‘s study underlines.Evolution. Evolution. Evolution. Got it? Eggs evolved by natural selection, and Science shows how. Darwin’s theory explains “an old mystery in natural history,” Phys.org says. No smart person should ever doubt evolution again. Look how useful evolutionary theory is to science! Spottiswoode says,Every bird egg serves the same function: to protect and nourish the offspring within while it grows from two cells to a fully formed chick. Yet this identical function is served by a striking diversity of egg shapes. Explanations for both the origin and function of this diversity have remained little more than anecdotal. On page 1249 of this issue, Stoddard et al. marry biophysics and ecology to provide a general theory that explains how and why diverse egg shapes arose. Based on a mathematical model, the authors predict that simple changes in the forces experienced by the shell membrane as the egg develops in the female’s oviduct are sufficient to generate the observed egg-shape diversity across all birds. The selection pressure that best explains its evolution comes from the characteristic we most associate with birds: flight.One certainly can’t fault the scientific rigor of Stoddard’s team. They accessed a museum collection of almost 50,000 eggs from 1,400 bird species. They proposed a hypothesis. They used math and built a chart with ellipticity on one access and asymmetry on the other axis. They compared the positions of eggs on this chart with the flight behaviors of the species. They made predictions that were fulfilled, and covered anomalies with auxiliary explanations. They showed how their hypothesis succeeds over the “anecdotal” proposals of others. Evolution wins again!In an eggshell, the explanation goes like this: the demands of flight create selection pressure on egg shape. Spottiswoode dispenses with old theories about clutch size, the need to prevent rolling off cliffs, and other “intriguing but ultimately parochial hypotheses” to lead into the new-and-improved idea hatched by Stoddard’s team:Instead they find consistent support for a simple hypothesis. Birds are streamlined for flight. Perhaps streamlined birds need narrower eggs to negotiate their narrower pelvis, and because the only way to fit a chick into a narrower egg is to make the egg longer, elliptical or asymmetric eggs result. This hypothesis predicts that species under strong selection for flight-related adaptations—such as migrants and aerial insectivores—should have elliptical or asymmetric rather than spherical eggs. The authors use an index of aerodynamic wing shape as a proxy for such selection, and find that this is by far the best predictor of egg shape. Swifts that live almost all of their lives on the wing have elliptical eggs. Sandpipers that traverse the globe have elliptical, asymmetric eggs. Puffbirds and trogons of tropical forests that may rarely leave their territories tend to have relatively spherical eggs. So, too, do flightless ostriches, but not penguins—perhaps because they must be streamlined to “fly” underwater. Within specific taxonomic groups, additional correlations suggest that other demands, such as clutch size, do further modulate egg shape, but none applies generally across all birds. Why, then, are there no hot-air balloon–shaped eggs? Not only do they appear developmentally hard to produce, but perhaps they offer no obvious selective advantage over a spherical egg: They are still inconveniently wide, with little increase in volume.Some QuestionsCan the evolutionary answer stand up to a gentle whiff of questioning? A running theme at CEH is that natural selection is a vacuous concept masquerading as a scientific explanation. By failing to provide real concrete predictions that are testable, natural selection reduces to the Stuff Happens Law—the opposite of explanation. Whatever happens, “it evolved,” so that the explanation becomes a just-so story. Are these scientists and reporters playing make-believe again? Or have they really demonstrated the value of Natural Selection theory for science? Let’s think about it.We should note first that egg shapes are examples of microevolution. Getting a chick to develop in 21 days that can hatch and fly is the big issue for evolution; egg shape and size seem very minor by comparison. We might compare the phenomenon to a magician pulling a rabbit out of a hat. Changing the shape of the hat or the size of the rabbit doesn’t matter as much as being able to do the trick itself. Furthermore, the evolutionary story fails to rule out creation or intelligent design, because advocates of those positions are perfectly happy to see variation in egg shape for different species, and are willing to admit some degree of change over time. So far, then, we don’t see the evolutionary story deserving of privileged status.Pelican, courtesy Illustra Media.The biggest piece of evidence they adduce is the chart showing a correlation between flight behavior and egg shape. It’s an interesting pattern. Correlation, however, does not imply causation. Does the egg shape drive the female bird’s oviduct, or does the oviduct drive the egg shape? If aerodynamic efficiency makes natural selection drive egg shape, one would think it would also drive everything else about the bird, like beak shape and mass. But beaks among strong flyers vary all over the map (consider pelicans, hummingbirds, and Arctic terns). Furthermore, for good reason, females only lay eggs when they are not flying. And what about the males, who don’t have an oviduct? It’s not exactly clear why natural selection would have any influence on egg shape. How do they know the differences are not due to genetic drift or some other non-Darwinian mechanism?Hummingbird eggs, by David CoppedgeMore importantly, the scientists, and Ms Spottiswoode and the Phys.org reporter, fail to apply neo-Darwinian theory correctly. They do not identify any mutation in egg shape genes that consistently appears and gets selected when a flyer needs an elliptical egg to survive and produce offspring. That should be the case if natural selection is a law of nature superior to the Stuff Happens Law. They fail to show how every other member of the population died out, such that only the individuals possessing the mutation survived to lay eggs. The explanation, in fact, sounds Lamarckian (inheritance of acquired characteristics) – certainly no less anecdotal than the preceding hypotheses. A look through the main paper reveals the authors admitting that in some respects, the preceding hypotheses made predictions about egg shape that work just as well as theirs. Wobbling between multiple conflicting variables, their flight-adaptation hypothesis reduces to speculation with a very weak empirical basis.Adding to the trouble, their phylogenetic analysis fails to find a consistent ancestry connecting flight ability to egg shape, leaving them scrambling for auxiliary hypotheses like convergence and parallel evolution. Watch the perhapsimaybecouldness index rise like a stiff breeze, threatening the stability of their hatched hypothesis:We do not suggest that a female’s flight behavior during the egg formation period directly affects egg formation, nor do we suggest that egg shape so strongly influences the flight abilities of female birds during their egg-laying period that selection has produced an aerodynamic egg. Rather, we propose that general adaptations for strong flight select for a constrained, muscular, streamlined body plan in both males and females, giving rise in the latter, directly or indirectly, to asymmetric and/or elliptical eggs. The precise physiological mechanisms by which morphological adaptations for flight might affect egg shape are unknown. However, the answer most likely lies in the two parameters highlighted by our biophysical model: egg membrane thickness variations and the differential pressure applied across the membrane, both of which are potentially shaped by selection for a streamlined body plan.Humpty Dumpty just fell. Wasn’t natural selection Darwin’s famous ‘mechanism’ to explain everything in biology? They just said the mechanisms are ‘unknown’, and only ‘might’ affect egg shape. They just said natural selection might work ‘directly or indirectly’—well, which is it? Clearly they do not know. Selection might have been ‘giving rise to’ (miracle words) “asymmetric and/or elliptical eggs,” implying that whatever influence natural selection had was general, non-specific and ambiguous. Is this an explanation, or something they find ‘most likely’ and ‘potentially’ explanatory? That’s only an opinion—a preference. Readers should make up their own minds about the strength of the evidence, not kowtow to the authors’ bluffing about the success of their hypothesis.In short, their hypothesis crashes to the ground right during the Darwin celebration, leaving a scrambled mess of just-so storytelling behind. Spottiswoode concludes that Stoddard’s team has not shown natural selection to play a causative role, and except in a “satisfyingly general” way (i.e., a storytelling way), has really explained very little at all:Stoddard et al. conclude that variation in egg shape at a broad scale is best explained by variation in the need to fly. But although satisfyingly general, this discovery will be far from the final word. A bird’s egg was famously described by abolitionist Thomas Wentworth Higginson as “the most perfect thing in the universe” [3/09/17], but this apparent perfection is most likely the sum of multiple ecological, structural, and developmental compromises. It remains unclear why egg shapes tend toward being spherical in the absence of strong selection for powered flight. Do asymmetry and ellipticity carry costs, such as making an egg easier to break into or harder to break out of? And why has natural selection solved the streamlining problem with elongate and symmetric eggs in some species, and elongate and asymmetric eggs in others—that is, what best explains the variation along the x axis of the figure? Did elongate eggs repeatedly evolve in concert with narrower pelvises, and do their shell membranes vary in thickness and composition in the way that Stoddard et al.‘s model predicts? Their paper opens up a rich seam for researchers to explore.The authors end with nothing left but futureware , in hope that all the king’s horses and all the king’s men can pick up the pieces and build a better evolutionary story.Our macroevolutionary analyses suggest that birds adapted for high-powered flight may maximize egg size by increasing egg asymmetry and/or ellipticity, while maintaining a streamlined body plan. Moving forward, it will be important to determine how the developmental process of egg shaping is coupled, in terms of physiology and genetics, with evolutionary constraints associated with flight strength and efficiency.The very thing they promised to explain—egg shape by natural selection (‘selection pressure’)—they now say has to be be explained in the future—egg shaping by natural selection (‘evolutionary constraints’). If natural selection theory has this much trouble with something as simple as egg shape, how can it explain flight itself, where multiple adaptations must appear simultaneously to keep the bird airborne? (See the Illustra film, Flight: The Genius of Birds.)Exercise: Here’s another paper in PNAS that purports to show how natural selection explains symbiotic relationships. It looks very impressive, with lots of math and jargon. But does it really succeed in proving the explanatory power of Darwinian theory? Or is it more like the glitzy ballroom on the Titanic hiding a flawed engine room unable to sustain impact by the iceberg of pointed questions? Look for evidence of high PCI (perhapsimaybecouldness index), exceptions to rules, storytelling, speculation, and fudging of parameters to obtain desired conclusions.Recommended Resource: (Visited 649 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Land ‘expropriation’ in context

first_img5 May 2006Alexandra Fuller’s books on her youth in Zambia and what was then Rhodesia – Don’t Let’s Go to the Dogs Tonight and Scribbling the Cat – have deservedly made her a minor literary sensation. If she submits an article to a major US or British newspaper, she is likely to have it accepted, and it is likely to have an impact.In one such piece, published in the Los Angeles Times last October, she argued that President Thabo Mbeki “looks set to sail the same course as Zimbabwe’s Robert Mugabe” in pursuing a policy of “uncompensated expropriation of land held by whites for black resettlement”.Because of stereotypes about Africa, this kind of statement, profoundly inaccurate though it is, finds ready credence in the US.I don’t know where Fuller got her facts from, but it is a fair bet she follows events in her old stamping ground via the internet from her new one, Wyoming.To be fair, given the sometimes sloppy way in which South African land reform has been reported in the media, it is easy to see how she could get things wrong. Not that the media is exclusively to blame. The language that officials use can also lead to misunderstanding.It is important that the South African government’s land restitution and redistribution policies are properly understood. The perception that South Africa is headed the same way as Zimbabwe has serious consequences. It raises the cost of capital. It deters investment. It constrains the government’s ability to promote growth and reduce poverty.International precedentsAt the root of much of the misunderstanding is the phrase “willing seller-willing buyer” and what is seen as its opposite, “expropriation”.When the government says that it means to start favouring the latter over the former, this is reported in ways that make it sound like a draconian shift from reason and reconciliation to the coercive and uncompensated dismemberment of property rights. The truth is otherwise.Respectable, prosperous democracies the world over reserve the right to take private property for public use on a compensated basis when the owner proves unwilling to sell or demands a price the government is unwilling to pay.In Britain, this is called compulsory purchase. In the US, where property rights are held in popular mythology to be especially sacrosanct, the government is said to exercise the power of eminent domain.The South African Constitution grants the government a precisely equivalent power and imposes on it limitations scarcely less binding than the fifth amendment to the US constitution, the relevant clause of which states: “. nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.”What constitutes a legitimate “public use” is a matter of ongoing debate in the US. Some contend that local authorities have been abusing eminent domain by using it to condemn low-income neighbourhoods so that they can be sold to private developers.The US Supreme Court on ‘public use’The authorities have justified their actions on the grounds that they are improving public welfare by bringing in new wealth and jobs and growing the tax base to improve services. A narrow majority of the Supreme Court has sided with this view.On one “public use”, the Supreme Court has been unanimous. In 1984, in an opinion penned by Justice Sandra Day O’Connor, an appointee of the very pro-property President Ronald Reagan, the court declared that eminent domain was an entirely legitimate means to deal with “the perceived social and economic evils of a land oligopoly”.In an answer to a parliamentary question on land reform last October, President Mbeki cited the O’Connor opinion and urged members to study it.The case, Hawaii Housing Authority vs. Midkiff, concerned an attempt by the state legislature in Hawaii to undo the effects of a feudal land tenure system which had resulted in just 72 private landowners owning virtually all non-public land, or nearly half the state.On Oahu, the most populous of the Hawaii’s islands, 22 landowners held 72% of all property titles. This, said the legislature, was skewing the local property market, inflating land prices and “injuring the public tranquility and welfare”.The remedy the lawmakers adopted required landowners to sell land to the state which would then transfer it on a subsidised basis to former tenants. If a sales price could not be negotiated, owners had to submit to binding arbitration.They filed suit, claiming breach of the fifth amendment. When the case reached the Supreme Court, they were resoundingly defeated.South Africa and eminent domainIn South Africa today the government is moving to use its power of eminent domain in much the same way, for a “public use” little different from the one explicitly approved by the highest US court.The democratic will of Hawaiians, expressed through their elected legislature, was for sweeping land redistribution. When this could be achieved on a willing seller-willing buyer basis, their representatives exercised eminent domain. So it is in South Africa.The Hawaiian landowners were compensated, of course, as ours will be. Was their compensation just? No doubt they received less than they would have wished. But that is automatically going to be the case whenever eminent domain is exercised. Eminent domain is what respectable, prosperous democracies do when a “willing seller-willing buyer” agreement cannot be reached.Does anyone seriously think that the US is headed down the same path as Zimbabwe?If not, as South Africa’s US ambassador, Barbara Masekela, asked in a letter to the Los Angeles Times, under what set of assumptions should South Africa be judged any differently?Simon Barber is the United States representative of the International Marketing Council of South Africalast_img read more

L’Art D’Être Mère en Afrique

first_imgPosted on December 22, 2010June 20, 2017By: Carolina Damásio, Young Champion of Maternal HealthClick to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)This blog post was contributed by Carolina Damásio, one of the fifteen Young Champions of Maternal Health chosen by Ashoka and the Maternal Health Task Force at EngenderHealth. She will be blogging about her experience every month, and you can learn more about her, the other Young Champions, and the program here.Scroll down for an English translation of this postE novembro foi o mês que escrevi o projeto que realizarei nos próximos meses no Mali. Com o título “A arte de ser mãe na África “, tem como objetivo geral contribuir com a melhoria da saúde materna entre o grupo das jovens migrantes que trabalham como ajudantes familiares na região de Bamako, Mali, visando uma melhoria nos indicadores de saúde no grupo em questão.Dentre as atividades propostas, além do curso de formação em saúde com as jovens grávidas, desenvolvimento de novas estratégias de comunicação para o grupo, melhoria da comunicação ao nível das ONGs, gravação de vídeo-documentário também serão objetivos do projeto.Escolhi a fotografia como uma das técnicas artísticas a serem utilizadas nos primeiros encontros, como forma de melhorar minha comunicação com as jovens grávidas, visto as barreiras culturais e de língua que enfrentarei durante os encontros. As meninas poderão expressar os seus sonhos, medos, dúvidas e esperanças por meio de fotos tiradas por elas mesmas, sendo a fotografia um forte e universal meio de comunicação…Neste mês de novembro visitei alguns projetos da APAFE, ainda na área da proteção da infância, que procura reinserir crianças e adolescentes na escola. Segue algumas fotos e vídeos das visitas.Junto com duas novas estagiárias da APAF francesas que agora me ajudam no projeto, comecei a selecionar jovens migrantes que procuram a organização para a gravação de vídeos, com as suas histórias de vida e também procurando fazer um resgate das canções de ninar e outros aspectos da cultura local relacionada a gestação, visto o frágil vínculo materno-infantil que parece existir de uma forma geral no Mali. Segue uma entrevista com uma das meninas.No momento estou realizando visitas em outras ONG´s de Bamako que trabalham com as jovens filhas migrantes vítimas de gravidezes indesejadas e fechando parcerias para começar o projeto junto a estas outras organizações também. Ums delas, Bici Mali, oferece em sua estrutura acolhimento para as meninas grávidas e será uma das organizações contempladas com o projeto.Algumas das estatísticas das minhas pesquisas nas últimas semanas sobre a saúde da mulher no Mali:Population : 22 % composé de femmes en âge fertile. Le taux de fécondité présente un taux de 6.6 enfants par femme (chiffres de 2009)Mortalité infantile au niveau mondial (103/1000 bébés nés vivants en 2008)Mortalité maternelle étant encore une cause fréquente parmi les décès féminins, estimée en 2006 à 464/100000 habitantsConformément aux chiffres de 2009 du Ministère de la Santé du Mali, seulement 37% des femmes ont eu une couverture de consultations prénatales effectives40 % des accouchements ont eu lieu sans aucun type d’assistanceL’excision est estimée à 85% en 2009L’âge de la première gestation -18.9 ansLe groupe des adolescentes constitue 21 % des femmes en âge de procréerles chiffres du ministère de la santé montrent que 30 % des jeunes filles (adolescentes) ont au moins un enfant et 5% sont enceintesA l’âge de 17 ans, 4 filles sur 10 ont des enfants The Art of Being a Mother in AfricaNovember was the month I wrote what my project will accomplish in the coming months in Mali. Titled “The Art of being a Mother in Africa,” it aims to contribute to the overall improvement of maternal health among the group of young migrants who work as caregivers in the region of Bamako, Mali, seeking an improvement in health indicators in that group.Among the proposed activities (in addition to on-going training in health with young pregnant women) are developing new communication strategies for the group, improving communication at the NGO level, and a documentary video recording.I chose photography as the artistic technique to use in the first meetings as a way to improve my communication with the young pregnant women because of cultural and language barriers that we face during the meetings. Girls can express their dreams, fears, doubts and hopes through pictures taken by themselves, and the image is a strong and universal means of communication.In November I visited some projects of APAF (the organization of Ashoka Fellow Jacqueline Goïta), still in the area of protecting children, which seeks to reintegrate children and adolescents into school. Here some pictures of the visits.Along with two new interns from the French APAF who now help me in the project, I started selecting young migrants being helped by the organization to record video of their stories of life. I’m looking to revive the use of lullabies and other aspects of local culture related to pregnancy, given the fragile mother-child bond that seems to exist in general in Mali.At the moment I am performing research on other NGOs working in Bamako with the young migrant victims of unwanted pregnancies and closing partnerships to get the project together with these other organizations as well. One of them, Bici Mali, in its structure provides shelter for pregnant girls and will be one of the organizations awarded the project.Some of the statistics of my research in recent weeks about the health of women in Mali:Population: 22% of women are of childbearing age. The fertility rate has a rate of 6.6 children per woman (2009 figures)Infant mortality in the world (103/1000 live births in 2008)Maternal mortality is still a common cause of death among women, estimated in 2006 to 464/100,000 population.According to 2009 figures from the Ministry of Health of Mali, only 37% of women had an effective coverage of antenatal care and 40% of deliveries took place without any kind of assistance.FGM is estimated at 85% in 2009The average age of first pregnancy – 18.9 yearsThe group of girls is 21% of women of childbearing ageFigures from the Ministry of Health show that 30% of young girls (teenagers) have at least one child and 5% were pregnant.At the age of 17 years, 4 out of 10 girls with children.Share this: ShareEmailPrint To learn more, read:last_img read more

10 months agoPSG midfielder Adrien Rabiot rejects Spurs approach

first_imgPSG midfielder Adrien Rabiot rejects Spurs approachby Paul Vegas10 months agoSend to a friendShare the lovePSG midfielder Adrien Rabiot has resisted an offer from Tottenham.Rabiot has told Tottenham he won’t be coming – regardless of their offer.The Paris Saint-Germain midfielder isn’t interested in moving to London, Le 10 Sport reports.The 23-year-old is out of contract at PSG this summer but with Barcelona and Manchester City reported to be interested he won’t consider Spurs.Liverpool are also monitoring the situation but are well catered for in midfield. TagsTransfersAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your saylast_img read more

Sprint and TMobile agree to combine in 265 billion deal

first_imgNEW YORK, N.Y. – T-Mobile and Sprint reached a $26.5 billion merger agreement Sunday that would reduce the U.S. wireless industry to three major players — that is, if the Trump administration’s antitrust regulators let the deal go through.The nation’s third- and fourth-largest wireless companies have been considering a combination for years, one that would bulk them up to a similar size as industry giants Verizon and AT&T. But a 2014 attempt fell apart amid resistance from the Obama administration.The combined company, to be called T-Mobile, would have about 127 million customers. Consumers worry a less crowded telecom field could result in higher prices, while unions are concerned about potential job losses.In a conference call with Wall Street analysts, Sprint CEO Marcelo Claure acknowledged that getting regulatory approval is “the elephant in the room,” and one of the first things the companies did after sending out the deal’s news release was to call Ajit Pai, chairman of the Federal Communications Commission.The companies stressed that they plan to have more employees following the combination, particularly in rural areas, than they do as stand-alone companies now.They also emphasized that the deal would help accelerate their development of faster 5G wireless networks and ensure that the U.S. doesn’t cede leadership on the technology to China.And they said the combination would allow them to better compete not only with AT&T and Verizon but also with Comcast and others as the wireless, broadband and video industries converge.“This isn’t a case of going from 4 to 3 wireless companies — there are now at least 7 or 8 big competitors in this converging market,” T-Mobile chief executive John Legere said in a statement. He would be the CEO of the combined company.The all-stock deal values each share of Sprint at slightly more than 0.10 T-Mobile shares. Deutsche Telekom, T-Mobile’s parent, would own about 42 per cent of the combined company. Japan’s SoftBank, which controls Sprint, would own 27 per cent, and the remainder would be held by the public.The companies said they expect the deal to close by the first half of 2019 and would result in about $6 billion in annual cost savings.Investors have been anticipating a deal like this for some time. In addition to the thwarted attempt three years ago, the two companies were poised to combine in October, but the deal was called off after what analysts said was a disagreement over control of the combined company.The deal will have to be reviewed by the Justice Department and the FCC.National carriers had not been able to get a deal through under President Barack Obama. But the FCC in September deemed the wireless market “competitive” for the first time since 2009, which some analysts say could make it easier to present a deal.The 5G aspirations are at the heart of the agreement, and the new technology could allow companies to provide faster service to people’s homes.Sprint’s Claure likened going from 4G to 5G to switching from black-and-white television to colour. The combined company plans to invest up to $40 billion in its network in the first three years, which executives said would drive more hiring and better service for customers.Sprint has a lot of debt and has posted a string of annual losses. It has cut costs and made itself more attractive to customers, BTIG Research analyst Walter Piecyk said, but hasn’t invested enough in its network and doesn’t have enough airwave rights for quality service in rural areas.T-Mobile, meanwhile, has been on a yearslong streak of adding customers. After the government nixed AT&T’s attempt to buy the company in 2011, T-Mobile led the way in many consumer-friendly changes, such as ditching two-year contracts and bringing back unlimited data plans.Consumers are paying less for cellphone service thanks to T-Mobile’s influence on the industry and the resulting price wars.Verizon and AT&T have been expanding their video-content businesses, while cable companies have been moving into wireless. That allows a single company to combine home and wireless internet and use content to support the communications businesses.Comcast, the cable giant that finished buying NBCUniversal in 2013, offers customers wireless service by reselling access to Verizon’s network. So does another dominant cable company, Charter.last_img read more

Wednesday is the final day to buy dinner tickets for Ball to

first_imgFORT ST. JOHN, B.C. – The fundraising ball for a local 4-year-old with neuroblastoma is happening this weekend, and Wednesday is the final day to pick up tickets to the dinner portion of the event.The Happily Ever After Ball was originally scheduled for August 25th but had to be pushed back to October 6th since Natalie Small would not have been able to attend. The 4-year-old has been battling Stage 4 neuroblastoma since last December, and had a bone marrow transplant too close to the August date.Event co-organizer Kate Hadland said that tickets for the dance portion of the Ball, which starts at 8:00 p.m. Saturday, will be available up to and including the evening of the event for $40. Tickets for the dinner are only available until the end of the day Wednesday from Tenacious Detail on 100th Ave. Those tickets are $65 for adults, $25 for kids aged 6-10, while kids 5 and under get in free.With more time to organize the event, Hadland said in August that the event will feature more auctions and prizes, as well as live music.Organizers Hadland and Janna Gerber have also created a foundation inspired by the Smalls. The Happily Ever After Foundation was designed to help families in the Peace Region when the unexpected happens, with the Foundation’s first fundraiser going towards helping Natalie and her family.For more information on the ball, foundation and how to purchase tickets contact Kate Hadland at (250) 263-4988 or Janna Gerber at (250) 264-7864, or message the Tenacious Detail Facebook page.last_img read more

Shaqiri Friends blame me for Mourinhos sacking

Shaqiri Friends blame me for Mourinhos sacking

first_imgLiverpool midfielder Xherdan Shaqiri has revealed some of his friends are blaming him for Jose Mourinho’s sacking after his brace against Manchester United last weekendThe Switzerland international came on in the 70th-minute in Sunday’s clash at Anfield and put Liverpool ahead just three minutes later.Shaqiri then added another shortly afterwards to seal a stunning 3-1 win for Liverpool.But, for Mourinho, the result proved to be the final blow of his United career with the Portuguese coach being dismissed on Tuesday.“I had a lot of messages from my friends when it happened,” Shaqiri told The Guardian.divock origi, liverpoolReport: Origi cause Klopp injury concerns George Patchias – September 14, 2019 Divock Origi injury in today’s game against Newcastle is a cause for concern for Jurgen Klopp.Perhaps with one eye on Tuesday’s trip to Italy…“There were a lot of good messages about the United game at first and then, when the news came out about Mourinho, I had messages saying: ‘That’s your fault!’ But this is football sometimes.“I don’t think it was just because we won that game that United wanted to change their manager.“There were other reasons but it means the game goes down in history. It will always be in my history too.”Ole Gunnar Solskjaer has been confirmed as interim manager at United for the rest of the season.Premier League leaders Liverpool will take on Wolves away tonight with kick-off set for 21:00 (CET).last_img read more

Study Programmatic Strategies Adopted by 85 Percent of Advertisers and 72 Percent

first_imgThe study reveals interesting but contrasting motives for programmatic adoption. For advertisers, 55 percent suggest that the inherent value is in delivering targeted ads that consumers can engage with. Sixty-three percent of publishers, on the other hand, believe the real value with programmatic is in creating more efficient transactions.The biggest problem with programmatic buying strategies, according to one-third of advertiser respondents, is brand safety. In other words, brands are worried about where their ads are showing up and are seeking more control in that regard.The study’s whitepaper also identified five emerging trends that both publishers and advertisers should consider:• Due to mobile proliferation, browser cookies are becoming less important for collecting data and segmenting audiences.• Programmatic is adaptable to all media types—paid, owned and earned. Because of that, demand for actionable customer profiles will continue to grow.• Data will continue to grow its strategic value.• The digital marketing supply chain will need to restructure in order to optimize emerging programmatic technologies.• Expect fewer, but more comprehensive third-party solution platforms in programmatic buying. Programmatic buying is exploding according to a recent IAB and Winterberry Group study. However, the study also shows that some hurdles are slowing adoption rates.The study probed 250 executive-level marketers across the digital industry and the results show that 85 percent of advertisers and 72 percent of publishers are presently using programmatic buying strategies. Moreover, the total is expected to rise to 91 percent and 83 percent respectively, which denotes a clear narrative that customized advertising is a principal strategy for advertisers and publishers moving forward.last_img read more

Slipknot Announce Summer Knotfest Roadshow And New Studio Album

Slipknot Announce Summer Knotfest Roadshow And New Studio Album

first_img https://twitter.com/KNOTFEST/status/1102614803393077248 News The Roadshow kicks off on July 26 in California, heads east and then south until its final performance at Texas’ The Woodlands on Sept. 8. Also appearing are Behemoth, Gojira and Volbeat. The Aug. 10 performance at the Iowa State Fair in Des Moines is the sole exception, with only Slipknot and Gojira appearing.Pre-sale tickets become available to fans and Citi cardholders on March 5 and will go on sale to the general public on March 8 at Live Nation’s website. Slipknot’s Outside The 9 fan club is encouraging would-be purchasers to join now for early access to seats. Exclusive GRAMMY.com Interview With Corey TaylorRead more Slipknot Announce Summer Knotfest Roadshow And New Studio Album Twitter Email With a packed summer tour ahead as well as their new hit “All Out Life,” Slipknot will hit the road in July with Behemoth, Gojira and VolbeatPhilip MerrillGRAMMYs Mar 4, 2019 – 4:03 pm GRAMMY winners Slipknot announced that in late July through early Sept., their Knotfest Roadshow will take them across the U.S. with an Aug. 20 stop in Toronto, Canada. Their next studio album is scheduled for release on Aug. 9 and purchasers of two seats for their tour will receive a digital version.More details are anticipated about the band’s new album, but its single “All Out Life” has already received more than 30 million views on YouTube since its release on Halloween. The single reached No. 3 in Nov. 2018 on Billboard’s Rock Digital Song Sales. Facebook Slipknot Announce Summer Tour And New Studio Album slipknot-announce-summer-knotfest-roadshow-and-new-studio-albumlast_img read more

NOW HIRING 60 New Job Openings In Wilmington Week of December 9 2018

NOW HIRING 60 New Job Openings In Wilmington Week of December 9 2018

first_imgWILMINGTON, MA — Below are job listings previously published on Wilmington Apple during the week of December 9, 2018:Full-Time/Part-Time Assistant Store Manager at Nouria EnergyFull-Time Overnight Baker at Panera BreadPart-Time Package Handler at FedExPart-Time Driver Helper at UPSFull-Time Officer Manager at AmetekFull-Time Experienced Fleet Technician at Pepsi Co.Full-Time & Part-Time Positions at SaversFull-Time Small Engine Mechanic at Garrick Santo LandscapePart-Time Afternoon Loader & Backup Driver at Optima ShippingFull-Time CDL A & B Drivers at TransForceFull-Time Customer Service Role at Serur AgenciesFull-Time Supervisor Customer Service at Graybar Electric CompanyFull-Time Customer Complaints Quality Associate at CutisPharmaFull-Time 2nd Shift Production Technician at CutisPharmaFull-Time Local Route Delivery Driver at Gordon Food ServiceFull-Time Specialist, Quality Enterprise Systems at Charles River LabsFull-Time Awake Overnight Residential Counselor at VinfenPart-Time Babysitter For 2 Wilmington ChildrenPart-Time Nanny For 2 Wilmington ToddlersPart-Time Retail Warehouse & Production Team Member at SaversPart-Time Package Handler at UPSFull-Time Team Leader (Night Shift) at DSM Resins & Functional MaterialsFull-Time Manager 1, Enterprise Direct Sales at ComcastPart-Time Caregivers at Assisting Hands of WilmingtonPart-Time Certified Home Health Aide at Assisting Hands of WilmingtonFull-Time Inbound Sales Specialist at Parterre Flooring SystemsFull-Time Customer Service Manager at Parterre Flooring SystemsFull-Time Inside Sale Representative at D.B. RobertsFull-Time Project Manager at CutisPharma, Inc.Full-Time Administrative Assistant at Garrick-Santo Landscape Co.Full-Time Movers & Drivers at Two Men And A TruckFull-Time CMM/Mechanical Inspector at TecometFull-Time Service Technician at Cochrane VentilationFull-Time/Part-Time Store Management Positions at SaversFull-Time Operations Assistant Manager at Dollar TreePart-Time Software Engineer Intern at SymboticFull-Time Wireless Sales Associate at SprintFull-Time National Accounts Program Support Specialist at UniFirstFull-Time Entry Level Sales at Capital Carpet and Flooring SpecialistsPart-Time Residential Asleep Life Coach at NuPathFull-Time Business Account Executive at ComcastFull-Time Customer Service Representative at Serur AgenciesFull-Time Bench Worker (1st & 2nd Shift) at TecometFull-Time Chemical Mix Operator at LubrizolFull-Time Overnight Baker at Panera BreadFull-Time Sales Floor Associate at Dollar Tree StoreFull-Time Process Operator at DSM Full-Time CNC Machinist at TecometFull-Time Caregivers at Assisting Hands of WilmingtonFull-Time Senior Maintenance Technician at Charles River LabsFull-Time Biomedical Engineer at Analog DevicesFull-Time Finance Analyst at Sovos ComplianceFull-Time Bookings & Commissions Analyst at Sovos ComplianceFull-Time Laborer at Packer Sanitation ServicesFull-Time Site Manager at Packer Sanitation ServicesPart-Time Cashier at Panera BreadFull-Time Seasonal Driver Help at UPSFull-Time/Part-Time Auto Body Technician at Imperial AutoFull-Time Carpet Cleaning Technician at Response Team 1Part-Time Customer Associate at Vector MarketingPart-Time K-12 In-Home Tutors at Sylvan Learning(NOTE: Wilmington businesses — Feel free to send me your job postings at wilmingtonapple@gmail.com.)Like Wilmington Apple on Facebook. Follow Wilmington Apple on Twitter. Follow Wilmington Apple on Instagram. Subscribe to Wilmington Apple’s daily email newsletter HERE. Got a comment, question, photo, press release, or news tip? Email wilmingtonapple@gmail.com.Thank You To Our Sponsor:Share this:TwitterFacebookLike this:Like Loading… RelatedNOW HIRING: 60 New Job Openings In Wilmington (Week of July 14, 2019)In “Business”NOW HIRING: 60 New Job Openings In Wilmington (Week of July 28, 2019)In “Business”NOW HIRING: 50 New Job Openings In Wilmington (Week of August 18, 2019)In “Business”last_img read more