Despite a central role in immunity, antibody neutralization of virus infection is poorly understood. Here we show how the neutralization and persistence of adenovirus type 5, a prevalent nonenveloped human virus, are dependent upon the intracellular antibody receptor TRIM21. Cells with insufficient amounts of TRIM21 are readily infected, even at saturating concentrations of neutralizing antibody. Conversely, high TRIM21 expression levels decrease the persistent fraction of the infecting virus and allows neutralization by as few as 1.6 antibody molecules per virus. The direct interaction between TRIM21 and neutralizing antibody is essential, as single-point mutations within the TRIM21-binding site in the Fc region of a potently neutralizing antibody impair neutralization. However, infection at high multiplicity can saturate TRIM21 and overcome neutralization. These results provide insight into the mechanism and importance of a newly discovered, effector-driven process of antibody neutralization of nonenveloped viruses.
Editor’s note: This is the fifth of a five-part series profiling the valedictorians of Saint Mary’s class of 2018.When asked to describe her experience at Saint Mary’s College in one word, valedictorian and elementary education major Kathleen Price chose “inspiring.”She referenced the Sisters of the Holy Cross, the novices, her fellow students, her professors, the education department and the four other women with whom she shares the title of valedictorian.“To have five of us is unbelievable,” Price said. “Congrats to the other four, and I know they’ve worked extremely hard to get where they’re at. That’s truly a testimony to this college and the endurance of the women here. I truly think it’s unbelievable.”Price said she was not expecting to receive the title since she transferred to the College after two years at East Carolina University, a state school in Greenville, North Carolina. Her first thoughts after hearing the news were revolving around if she wanted to speak at the commencement ceremony or not, she said, and the consequences of choosing to forgo a speech.“I knew if I was the only valedictorian not to speak, my mother was going to murder me, so I sucked it up and said I would talk,” Price said. “It’s an honor to be a valedictorian. I’m very much lie low, under the radar. I didn’t even tell anyone. I knew in February, and I didn’t say anything to anyone for the longest time. I told a close friend and my family of course, but no one knew. … It’s an honor and I’m delighted the College wants to recognize me. I get the honor of speaking, and it’s truly an honor. I just need to get over myself and get up there and talk.”Though Price likes to stray from the spotlight, she said the opportunity is one for which she is grateful. She said she also appreciates the close relationships she’s been able to create during her time on campus, specifically through the Friends With Sisters club.“My nun — I don’t own her, but I call her my nun — Sister Bernadette Mulick, a retired Sister of the Holy Cross,” Price said. “I’m in Friends With Sisters, and she is my partnering Sister. I can’t even go into words with what that woman has done for me. … She just gives me a smile and a hug every time I see her once a week. … [She’s] always supportive. Whenever I’ve gotten any award or anything that I’m recognized for, she’s right there, front and center. She’s there for me which is really touching. … She’s made this time here truly special.”All the close relationships Price has formed at Saint Mary’s as well as the familiar environment the campus promotes are some of the things she’ll remember the most, she said.“It’s truly a different environment here,” she said. “I’ve met so many terrific girls that have, with open arms, embraced me and helped me and have gotten me through so many things while I’ve been here. … I can’t even go into words how awesome my professors have been, especially in the education department. They’ve been saints over there. They go to the ends of the earth for their students. A professor took me to the ER. To have that love and care is just unbelievable.”Most of all, Price said she will always appreciate what Saint Mary’s has helped her learn about herself.“I’ve learned so much about myself and about my faith and how I want to serve in the future,” Price said. “I think it’s helped me a lot in seeing what kind of direction I want to take in my life, which has been amazing. I’ve met some amazing, incredible people, people I never would’ve thought I’d meet in a million years. To sum it up, it’s a blessing.”Tags: 2018 Commencement, class of 2018, saint mary’s valedictorians 2018, smc valedictorian, valedictorian
The scope of the Lakers’ coaching search appears to be widening, even as the outside urgency to find one mounts.According to an ESPN report, the Lakers interviewed former Brooklyn Nets and Milwaukee Bucks coach Jason Kidd for the vacant position Monday. A Hall of Fame point guard, Kidd accumulated a 183-190 record with the Nets and the Bucks, with a 9-15 playoff record.Kidd is the fourth candidate to be linked to the Lakers, joining former Cleveland Cavaliers coach Tyronn Lue, Philadelphia 76ers assistant Monty Williams and Miami Heat assistant Juwan Howard. Lue and Williams interviewed for the position in the last week, and Howard reportedly had a meeting scheduled for Tuesday.The ESPN report also introduced another figure behind the Lakers’ search: longtime assistant and current team advisor Kurt Rambis, who conducted the interview with General Manager Rob Pelinka. Kidd has extensive cachet as a player: The 46-year-old from Oakland had a 19-year NBA career in Dallas, Phoenix, New Jersey and New York while making 10 All-Star teams. He amassed the second-most assists in NBA history and won a championship with the Mavericks in 2011 (along with Lakers center Tyson Chandler). Kidd also is a contemporary of LeBron James, playing with him on the 2008 gold medal-winning Team USA squad and playing against him in the 2011 NBA Finals. How athletes protesting the national anthem has evolved over 17 years Lakers, Clippers schedules set for first round of NBA playoffs Trail Blazers, Grizzlies advance to NBA play-in game; Suns, Spurs see playoff dreams dashed AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREUCLA alum Kenny Clark signs four-year contract extension with PackersThe Lakers have been tight-lipped about their evolving power structure since the departure of president of basketball operations Magic Johnson on April 9. In the meantime, Pelinka reportedly has been the front office representative to speak with coaching candidates. But Rambis, who was brought back to the franchise in an official capacity in September, also is a trusted figure to team owner Jeanie Buss.Rambis has a long history with the Lakers, spanning decades as a player in the ’80s and ’90s, as well as an assistant coach for Phil Jackson and a front office official. He is also married to Linda Rambis, who is the executive director of special projects and a close friend of Buss.So far, the Lakers have not declared any public intention to replace Johnson, who served over basketball operations alongside Pelinka beginning in February 2017.The competition the Lakers face for coaches is increasing: On Monday, the Phoenix Suns fired head coach Igor Kokoskov after just one season, and ESPN reported they have strong interest in Williams. The Sacramento Kings face uncertainty after hiring former Lakers coach Luke Walton just over a week ago: The team and the NBA are fact-collecting following a lawsuit alleging that Walton sexually assaulted a former Los Angeles sports reporter in a hotel room.Related Articles Newsroom GuidelinesNews TipsContact UsReport an Error Trail Blazers beat Grizzlies in play-in, earn first-round series with the Lakers Kidd’s tenure as a coach has been more mixed: He left Brooklyn after one season despite winning a playoff series, when he left the organization under fraught circumstances. In three-and-a-half seasons with the Bucks, Kidd failed to lead the team out of the first round – this year Milwaukee has enjoyed the best regular-season record in the NBA.Perhaps concerning given Walton’s unfolding case is Kidd’s own turbulent personal history: He pleaded guilty to spousal abuse in 2001, for which he was fined and took anger management classes. He also pleaded guilty to driving while intoxicated for a 2012 car collision in Long Island. Lakers practice early hoping to answer all questions