In this study we investigate and quantify the statistical changes that occur in the stratosphere and mesosphere during 37 sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events from 1989 to 2016. We consider changes in the in-situ ozonesonde observations of the stratosphere from four sites in the northern hemisphere (Ny-Ålesund, Sodankylä, Lerwick, and Boulder). These data are supported by Aura/MLS satellite observations of the ozone volumetric mixing ratio above each site, and also ground-based total-column O3 and NO2, and mesospheric wind measurements, measured at the Sodankylä site. Due to the long-time periods under consideration (weeks/months) we evaluate the observations explicitly in relation to the annual mean of each data set. Following the onset of SSWs we observe an increase in temperature above the mean (for sites usually within the polar vortex) that persists for >∼40 days. During this time the stratospheric and mesospheric ozone (volume mixing ratio and partial pressure) increases by ∼20% as observed by both ozonesonde and satellite instrumentation. Ground-based observations from Sodankylä demonstrate the total column NO2 does not change significantly during SSWs, remaining close to the annual mean. The zonal wind direction in the mesosphere at Sodankylä shows a clear reversal close to SSW onset. Our results have broad implications for understanding the statistical variability of atmospheric changes occurring due to SSWs and provides quantification of such changes for comparison with modelling studies.
Promoted ContentCare To Try A Glow-In-The-Dark Doughnut?The Highest Paid Football Players In The World10 Risky Jobs Some Women Do10 Characters Who Would Make Astounding Disney PrincessesWho Earns More Than Ronaldo?20 Facts That’ll Change Your Perception Of “The Big Bang Theory”The Best Cars Of All TimeTop 7 Best Car Manufacturers Of All Time7 Universities In The World With The Highest Market Value6 Unforgettable Shows From The 90s That Need To Make A Comeback15 Action Heroes 25 Years Ago And Now13 kids at weddings who just don’t give a hoot Roger Federer lives to win titles, but five-set thrillers like his epic against John Millman at the Australian Open are also a key reason why he is still playing aged 38. The Swiss master looked out for the count at 4-8 down in a nailbiting fifth-set super tiebreaker against the gutsy Australian, but somehow found a way back to clinch the third-round clash 4-6, 7-6 (7⁄2), 6-4, 4-6, 7-6 (10⁄8). Roger Federer says his five-set epic against John Millman is why he continues to played aged 38 Federer admitted it was “extremely difficult” and he went through the full gamut of emotions. But that is how he likes it. He said the electric atmosphere on Rod Laver Arena and the thrill of a match that stretched for more than four hours was part of why he continues to play. “Yeah, no doubt,” said the 20-time Grand Slam winner. “I mean, in the moment itself, it’s very gruelling and, at times, very disappointing when you are in situations where you get broken in the fifth or you’re down in the super breaker and lose the first set. “That’s when you really start wondering, why couldn’t I close this match earlier and all these things? “Then all of a sudden you turn the whole thing around within, like, two minutes and it was so worthwhile, everything that I have gone through.” After 22 years of Grand Slam tennis, he said his motivation remained strong “because of winning titles, trying to win as many matches as possible, enjoy myself out on court”. “But also being in epic matches like this,” he added. “It doesn’t always have to be finals. As long as the crowds are into it, you have a great battle with an opponent who you really admire and respect, it’s a good feeling. “I’m happy I had that match. I hope I would feel the same way also if I would have lost, to be honest.” Federer had played 53 five-setters in his storied career before meeting Millman, winning 30 and losing 23, but few could match the intensity of the battle on Friday evening. Loading… Read Also: Aussie Open: Ruthless Nadal crushes Busta to reach last 16 Millman is one of the fittest players on tour and memorably beat Federer over four tight sets in the round of 16 at the US Open in 2018. “That’s why I mumbled something to him at the net just saying, ‘I have so much respect for you, and it’s such a pity, I’m so sorry, but well played’,” said the Swiss star. Federer next faces unseeded Hungarian Marton Fucsovics as he guns for a place in his 15th Australian Open quarter-final. FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享
Below are times and dates for local high school playoff games to be held Monday, Oct. 25, and Tuesday, Oct. 26. A list of this weekend’s games will be posted Thursday, Oct. 27. Road teams are listed first.Tuesday, Oct. 25Boys’ soccer, Class B North: (10) Mount Desert Island vs. (2) Winslow, 3 p.m.Boys’ soccer, Class C North: (9) George Stevens Academy vs. (1) Orono, 3 p.m.Boys’ soccer, Class C North: (11) Sumner vs. (3) Washington Academy, 4 p.m.Wednesday, Oct. 26Girls’ soccer, Class C North: (5) Central vs. (4) Bucksport, 3:30 p.m.Girls’ soccer, Class C North: (8) GSA vs. (1) Orono, 3 p.m.This is placeholder textThis is placeholder text